This flow chart explains the supply chain in Sweden on the residential market. One difference between the Swedish market and the US market is that in Sweden all parts of the heating systems usually are being sold by different companies, and not as one complete unit, since many companies are selling their products directly to the end user.
The bio energy tradition is several hundred years old in Sweden. Since the 1980’s however, development has increased rapidly from 60 to 115 TWh /year. This increase is linked to increased district heating, industrial investments and electricity production. Today bio energy represents 28.6% of all energy used in Sweden (420 TWh / year) and the increase continues. Bio energy is currently the main option for heating and is growing rapidly for electricity production. The basis for this is a holistic approach with economy, environment, climate change and employment as driving forces.
Sweden is today world-leading in many parts of the bio-energy field and Swedish companies and municipalities are currently operating worldwide. The process has been driven by unified political, environmental and economic forces with a long-term perspective at the basis. Fossil-free energy has no or low taxes, while fossil fuels have high and rising energy and carbon dioxide taxes. The reform of the tax system began in the early 1990’s.
Medium-sized plants with 0,3-25 MW energy range The development of bio energy plants with an energy capacity between 0,3 and 25 MW is under strong growth and many Swedish companies are active in this segment. These facilities are suited to provide heat to everything from larger buildings to district heating plants.
Types of combustion equipment in the range:
• Pellet burners
• Powder burners
• Roasting burners
Frequently found fuels in the range:
• Pellets and briquettes of wood, peat, agricultural and industry by-products.
• Powder of pellets and briquettes.
• Wood chips.
• Milled and sod peat.
• Bio-oils
• Biogas
Bio fuel markets
The choice of incinerator is often governed by the local fuel situation at the plant in question. It is wise to choose a fuel which, on a long term basis, is readily available at a low price. The cost of a plant is lower for more expensive fuels and higher for cheap fu
els such as chips. Therefore, the amount of hours that a plant is to function also steers the choice of technology.
Source: the Swedish Environmental Technology Council, SWENTEC (
More information can be found here:
Swedish clean tech in numbers 2008.pdf
Biogas from manure and waste products.pdf
- Swedish case studies
Swedish strategies and initiatives for promotion of environmental technology.pdf
Please click here to read more about the European Pellet market in a presentation by DI Dr. Christian Rakos, Executive Director, proPellets Austria.

Christian Rakos
Christian Rakos, born 1959, studied Physics, Philosophy and History. From 1988-1998 he worked at the Institute for Technology Assessment of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. In 1998 he joined the Austrian Energy Agency where he was responsible for renewable energies with a special focus on bioenergy. From 2004 to 2005 he worked at the Irish Renewable Energy Information Office as European projects manager. Since mid 2005 he is executive director of the Austrian Pellet Industry Association “proPellets Austria.”